Not really, no. The chin-up is a pulling motion and primarily works your lats, your traps, and your biceps.
If you want to work your chest, your best option is to do a pressing motion, particularly ones that really stretch the chest muscles.
For example, the elbows-flared dumbbell bench press would allow you to get a really deep stretch in the pectoral/chest muscles, and this will help those muscles grow the best. You can also feel a big stretch on the chest with dumbbell flyes.
If you are looking for a bodyweight exercise that hits the chest, you will want to do either a push-up or a dip with a forward lean.
In my opinion, working on broadening your shoulders through the muscle is time well spent, and so I always work on my shoulder first before working on my chest. This means I start with an overhead press variation (like the standing dumbbell Arnold press), then move down to an incline dumbbell bench press. I still hit the chest, but I would on my shoulder first.
A chin-up is a great option for creating the v-taper in guys while hitting the biceps, and so doing things like chin-ups with some overhead pressing can create a great-looking physique.